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Glossary

AB Testing: AB testing refers to two different versions of a page or a page element such as an ad, a heading, an image or a button. AB testing is aimed at effectiveness against key performance indicators including click through rates, conversion rates and revenue per visit.

Above The Fold: In the context of banner ad placement, above the fold generally refers to a banner placement on a web page that can be viewed without scrolling either horizontally or vertically. Most online adnetworks define suitable above the fold placement as within 500 or 600 pixels of the top of the page.

Across the board: A program that is broadcast at the same time period every day (see Strip).

Account executive: An advertising agency employee who serves as the liaison between the agency and the client.

Acquisition Rate: Acquisition Rate = Total participants/Total Audience

Action Request: Each time an action tag is triggered on the advertiser’s website, an Action Request is logged. Action requests are later used to process conversions.

Activity audit: Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics.

Ad Allowance: Ad allowance is the money provided by a manufacturer to a distributor or retailer for advertising a specific product or brand.

Ad Network: Ad networks (advertising network, banner network, online ad network) are advertising companies which administer ad sales, billing, serving and collection for web sites. Ad networks often aggregate sites into specific categories or demographic groups, then sell ad inventory to advertisers either to specific sites within the networks, specific categories or demographics, or via run of network buys which target sites within the network. Ad networks can sell ad inventory on CPM, CPC, CPA and other revenue models. A reviewed list of ad networks can be found here at Internet Ad Sales.

Ad Server: A third-party system composed of powerful serverhardware, ad serving software, and a powerful internet connection, used by advertisers and web publishers for rapid and reliable display of online advertisements. An important component of ad servers is independent tracking of ad display and click information. Many adnetworks, including Burst and Fastclick, offer separately licensed versions of their own ad servers which may be used by web publishers who manage some or all of their own advertising sales rather than outsourcing to ad networks.

Ad Views: The number of times a specific ad has been displayed. Many ad networks sell advertising using a CPM model, in which ads are purchased and web publishers reimbursed at a fixed rate per thousand impressions.

Affiliate: A broadcast station that grants a network an option of specific times for broadcasting network programming in return for compensation.

Agency of record: Advertising agency that coordinates an advertiser’s promotion of several products handled by more than a single agency (see Blanket contract).

Agency recognition: Acknowledgment by media owners that certain advertising agencies are good credit risks and/or fulfill certain requirements, thus qualifying for a commission.

Air check: Recording a broadcast to serve as an archival or file copy.

Allotment: The number and type of outdoor posters in a showing (see howing).

Alternate sponsorship: Two advertisers who sponsor a single program-one advertiser sponsors one week and the other sponsors the alternate week (see Crossplugs).

Animated GIF: A graphic image in GIF (graphical interchange format) format composed of multiple layers which display in turn, providing the illusion of motion. A large percentage of non rich-media banner ads are in animated GIF format. Animated GIF banners have historically generated higher click-through rates than static images. However, as web users have grown more mature, some studies indicate that blinking or flashing images are more often automatically ignored, as users have come to assume that any animated image on a page is an advertisement.

Announcement: An advertising message that is broadcast between programs (see Station break, Participation, Billboard), or an advertisement within a syndicated program or feature film; any broadcast commercial regardless of time length, within or between programs, that presents an advertiser’s message or a public service message.

American Research Bureau (ARB): One of several national firms engaged in radio and television research; the founder of Arbitron ratings.

Area of Dominant Influence (ADI): Arbitron measurement area that comprises those counties in which stations of a single originating market account for a greater share of the viewing households than those from any other market; similar to Nielsen’s Designated Market Area.

Audience: Persons who receive an advertisement; individuals who read a newspaper or magazine, listen to a radio broadcast, view a television broadcast, and so on.

Audience accumulation: The total number of different persons or households exposed to a single media vehicle over a period of time (see Cumulative audience.

Audience composition: Audience analysis expressed in demographic terms or other characteristics.

Audience duplication: Those persons or households who see an advertisement more than once in a single media vehicle or in a combination of vehicles.

Audience flow: The movement of a broadcast audience’s attention from one station to another when the program changes, measured against the audience that stays tuned to the same station or network to view the new program (see Holdover audience).

Audience profile: The minute-by-minute viewing pattern for a program; a description of the characteristics of the people who are exposed to a medium or vehicle (see Profile).

Audience turnover: That part of a broadcast audience that changes over time (see Audience flow).

Audimeter: A:C: Nielsen Company’s automatic device attached to radio or television receiving sets that records usage and station information (see People meter).

Availability: A broadcast time period that is open for reservation by an advertiser in response to an advertiser’s or agency’s initial inquiry (slang “avail”).

Average audience: The number of broadcast homes that are tuned in for an average minute of a broadcast.

Average exposure: The average (mean) number of times that each audience member has been exposed to an advertisement.

Average net paid circulation: Average (mean) number of copies that apublication distributes per issue.

B2B: B2B, or Business-to-Business, defines a business, often a web site, targeting other commercial entities rather than consumers. B2B web sites tend to generate significantly higher ad revenues that strictly consumer-oriented sites. Internet Ad Sales is a B2B web site, as the main target audiences of this site are professional, commercial web publishers and advertisers.

Back to back: Two broadcast programs or commercials in succession rate: See Open rate.

Banner Exchange: An alternative to banner ads, a banner exchange provides the potential to draw extra traffic to a web site through banner displays and is a good way to fill unsold or on profitable inventory. The most common banner exchanges, such as LinkExchange, offer one banner display on some external web site in the network for every two banners displayed on one’s own web site. Most banner exchanges use 468×60 pixel standard banners, although there are a few pop-up banner exchanges and skyscraper exchanges.

Banner Ad: Banner and banner ad are generic terms describing the most common forms of online advertising, the 468×60 image or rich media ad displayed at the top of many commercial web sites.

Barter: An advertising medium that sells time or space in return for merchandise or other nonmonetary returns: also a television programming offer in which a station is offered a syndicated program in exchange for commercial positions within the program.

Billboard: An outdoor poster: cast and production information that follows a broadcast program: a six-second radio commercial; a short commercial announcement, usually eight or ten seconds in length, announcing the name of the sponsor, at the start and close of a program.

Billing: The value of advertising that is handled by an advertising agency on behalf of its clients (often called “billings”); the pro of issuing invoices for media space and time that have been purchased.

Blanket contract: A special rate or discount that is granted by an advertising medium to an advertiser who promotes several products or services through more than one agency.

Bleed: Printing to the edge of the page, with no margin or border. Block: consecutive broadcast time periods.

Booking: Scheduling a broadcast program or commercial Brand Development Index (BDI. A comparative measure of a brand’s sales in one market, compared with other markets, used to decide the relative sales value of one market versus another (see Category Development Index.

Break: Time available for purchase between two broadcast programs or between segments of a single program.

Broadcast Advertisers Report (BAR): A commercial broadcast monitoring service that is available on a network and market-by-market basis.

Bulk discount: A discount offered by media for quantity buys (see Quantity discount.

Bulk rate: See Bulk discount.

Business card: A small print advertisement, announcing a business, that does not change over time (see Rate holder).

Business paper: A publication that is intended for business or professional interests.

Buy: The process of negotiating, ordering, and confirming the selection of a media vehicle and unit; as a noun, the advertising that is purchased from a vehicle.

Buyer: See Media buyer and Media planner.

Buying service: A company primarily engaged in the purchase of media for advertising purposes; it supplants part of the advertising media function; also called “media buying specialist” or “time/space buying specialist/service”.

Buy sheet: The form used by a media buyer to keep track of the data on a media selection “buy”.

Campaign: A specific coordinated advertising effort on behalf of a particular product or service that extends for a specified period of time.

Car card: Transit advertisement in or on a bus, subway, or commuter train car.

Card rate: The cost of time or space on a rate card.

Carryover effect: The residual level of awareness or recall after a flight or campaign period, used to plan the timing of schedules.

Cash discount: A discount, usually 2 percent, by media to advertisers who pay promptly.

Category Development Index (CDI): A comparative market-by-market measure of a market’s total sales of all brands of a single product category, used to evaluate the sales potential of a market for a product category or a brand (see Brand Development Index.

Center spread: An advertisement appearing on two facing pages printed on a single sheet in the center of a publication (see Double Truck).

Chain: A broadcast network; also, a newspaper or magazine group of single ownership or control.

Chain break (CB): The time during which a network allows a station to identify itself; usually a 20-second spot (slang “twenty”); now often a 30-second spot plus a ten-second spot, with 20 seconds remaining for identification.

Checking: The process of confirming whether an advertisement actually appeared.

Checking copy: A copy of a publication that is supplied by the medium to show that an advertisement appeared as specified.

Circulation: In print, the number of copies distributed; in broad-cast, the number of households within a signal area that have re-ceiving sets; in outdoor, the number of people who have a reasonable opportunity to see a billboard.

City zone: A central city and the contiguous areas that cannot be distinguished from it.

City zone circulation: The number of newspapers that are distributed within a city, rather than in outlying areas.

Classified advertising: Advertising that is set in small type and arranged according to categories or interests.

Classified display advertising: Classified advertising of a larger size than most other classified advertising, possibly with headlines, illustrations, and so on; classified advertising with some of the characteristics of display advertising (see Display advertising.

Class magazines: Special-interest magazines with desirable upscale audiences.

Clearance: Coverage of national television households by the number of stations (or markets) accepting a network program for airing; also, gaining available time on stations to carry a program or commercial.

Clear time: The process of reserving time or time periods with a station or network; checking on available advertising time.

Click-Through Rate (CTR): CTR, or click-through rate, is the rate at which visitors click an advertisement, usually calculated as a percentage of ad impressions. The current industry  standard CTR for 468×60 banner ads is about 0.25%. Highest CTRs are usually generated using fake “message waiting” or javascript warning ads, which often have little or no relevance to their target site. Ads of this kind can generate CTRs up to 11% or more, but, due to their nuisance value, can be detrimental to the hosting site.

Clipping bureau: An organization that aids in checking print advertising by clipping the advertisements from print media.

Closing date: The final deadline set by print media for advertising material to appear in a certain issue: in broadcast, the term “closing hour” may be used.

Closure: A sale resulting from following up on an inquiry from direct mail advertising.

Column inch: Publication space that is one column wide by one inch high, used as a measure of advertising space.

Combination rate: A special discounted advertising rate for buying space in two or more publications owned by the same interests.

Commercial impressions: The total audience, including duplication, for all commercial announcements in an advertiser’s schedule (see Gross impressions.

Confirmation: A broadcast media statement that a specific time is still open for purchase by an advertiser who is preparing a broad- cast advertising schedule.

Consumer profile: A demographic description of the people or house holds that are prospects for a product or service (see Target group).

Contiguity rate: A reduced broadcast advertising rate for sponsoring two or more programs in succession; for example, an advertiser participating in two programs running from 7:00 pm: – 7:30 pm, and then 7:30 pm – 8:00 pm, may qualify for a contiguity rate.

Controlled circulation: Circulation that is limited to persons who qualify to receive a publication; often distributed free to qualified persons.

Cooperative advertising: Retail advertising that is paid partly or fully by a manufacturer; two or more manufacturers cooperating in a single advertisement (slang “co-op”).

Cooperative announcement: Commercial time in network programs that is made available to stations for sale to local or national advertisers.

Cooperative program: A network broadcast that is also sold on a local basis and sponsored by both national and local advertisers; for example, “The Tonight Show” (see Network cooperative program).

Corporate discounting: Incentives offered to advertisers with numerous brands of products; all of the corporation’s advertising schedules are combined for a larger discount level.

Cost per rating point (CPR) The figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to one percentage point of the target group, audience or population (see Rating point).

Cost per thousand (CPM): A dollar comparison that shows the relative cost of various media or vehicles; the figure indicates the dollar cost of advertising exposure to a thousand households or individuals.

Cost per thousand per commercial minute (CPM/PCM): The cost per thousand of a minute of broadcast advertising time.

Coverage: The number or percentage of individuals or households that are exposed to a medium or to an advertising campaign.

Cover position: An advertisement on the cover of a publication, often at a premium cost; first cover=outside front cover; second cover=inside front cover; third cover=inside back cover; fourth cover=outside back cover.

Cowcatcher: A brief commercial announcement at the beginning of a broadcast program.

CPA: CPA, or cost per action, is an ad payment model in which advertisers pay only when an ad display leads to a completed sale, registration, download, etc. Virtually all affiliate network advertising can be thought of as CPA. Low-volume sites will find it difficult, if not impossible, to generate revenue through CPA advertising, as a large quantity of banner displays would be needed to generate actual sales. A typical CPA ad may generate a CTR (click-through-rate) of 1%, followed by a conversion rate (the rate at which users complete a sale or registration) of 1%. At those comparatively high levels, 10,000 banners would have to be displayed to generate one sale. For this reason, commissions must be high enough to translate into a reasonable CPM for the web publisher. In the previous example, a commission on sales of $5.00 would translate to a CPM of $0.50, which is low but not unreasonable in today’s market for banner ads.

CPC: A performance-based pricing model for advertising sales, CPC, or cost per click pays publishers based on number of clicks on a specific ad. Most ad networks, logically enough, only pay once per click per user within a specified time period, generally 24 hours or more. CPC rates can vary greatly, from $0.01 to $0.05 for low scalenetworks, up to $0.35 or more for more reputable ad networks.

CPL: Similar to CPA (cost per action), the CPL ad pricing model pays web publishers for every banner click that results in a lead or inquiry for the advertiser. In other words, advertisers pay publishers only when a visitor not only click the ad and visit the advertiser’s site, but also performs a desired action on that site (such as request information via an online form).

CPM: CPM, or cost per thousand (the M is from the Roman numeral for thousand, which was derived from the Latin “mille”), is the price an advertiser pays for each 1000 displays of a banner ad. As opposed to performance-based models such as CPA or CPC, CPM rates guarantee web publishers revenue for each ad displayed, whether the visitor clicks it or not, and are thus usually preferable to CPC or CPA models. CPM levels at the most common ad networks range from $0.20 – $1.50 for 468×60 banners, up to $5.00 – $8.00 for popups, popunders and layer ads, and potentially higher for interstitials and full page ads.

Crossplugs: In alternating sponsorships, permitting each advertiser to insert one announcement into the program during the weeks when the other advertiser is the sponsor, maintaining weekly exposure for both (see Alternate sponsorship.

Cumulative audience: Cumulative broadcast rating; the net unduplicated audience of a station or network during two or more time periods; also used to describe how many different households or people are reached by an advertising schedule (also called “accumulative audience,” “net audience,” and “unduplicated audience”); technically, a cumulative audience is those persons who were exposed to any insertion of an advertisement in multiple editions of a single vehicle, whereas an unduplicated audience is those persons who were exposed to any insertion of an advertisement in a combination of vehicles or media, counting each person only once (slang) “cume”.

Cumulative reach: The number of different households that are exposed to a medium or campaign during a specific time.

Cut-in: The insertion of a local commercial announcement into a network or recorded program.

Dayparts: Specific segments of the broadcast day; for example, day time, early fringe, prime time, late fringe, late night.

Deadline: The final date for accepting advertising material to meet a publication or broadcast schedule (see Closing date).

Dealer imprint: Inserting a local dealer’s identification into nat- ionally prepared advertising.

Dealer tie-in: A manufacturer’s announcement that lists local dealers; not the same as “co-op”.

Delayed broadcast (DB): A local station broadcasting a network program at a time other than its regularly scheduled network time.

Delivery: The ability to reach or communicate with a certain audience or number of people by using a particular advertising schedule; the physical delivery of a publication.

Demographic characteristics: The population characteristics of a group or audience.

Designated Market Area (DMA). A term used by the A:C: Nielsen Company; an area based on those counties in which stations of the originating market account for a greater share of the viewing households than those from any other area (see ADI); for example, Lake County, Illinois, belongs to the Chicago DMA because a majority of household viewing in Lake County is or can be ascribed to Chicago stations rather than to stations from Milwaukee or any other market.

Digest unit: See Junior unit.

Direct advertising: Advertising that is under complete control of the advertiser, rather than through some established medium; for example, direct mail or free sampling.

Direct mail advertising: Advertising sent by mail; also used to describe advertising in other media that solicits orders directly through the mail.

Direct marketing: Sales made directly to the customer, rather than through intermediaries or intervening channels: includes direct mail,direct advertising, telemarketing, and so forth.

Directory advertising: Advertising that appears in a buying guide or directory; advertisements in a store directory: for example, Yellow Pages advertising.

Display advertising: Print advertising that is intended to attract attention and communicate easily through the use of space, illustrations, layout, headline, and so on, as opposed to classified advertising.

Display classified advertising: See Classified display advertising.

Double spotting: See Piggyback.

Double spread: See Two-page spread.

Double truck: Slang term for a print advertisement that uses two full pages side-by-side, but not necessarily the two center pages, usually for a magazine advertisement (see Center spread and Two-page spread.

Drive time: Radio broadcast time during morning and evening commuter rush hours.

Earned rate: The advertising rate that is actually paid by the advertiser after discounts and other calculations.

Effective frequency: Level or range of audience exposure that provides what an advertiser considers to be the minimal effective level, and no more than this optimal level or range; also called “effective reach”.

Effective reach: See Effective frequency.

Facing: A billboard location with the panels facing the same direction and visible to the same lines of traffic.

Fixed rate: An advertising rate for advertising time that cannot be taken away or “preempted” by another advertiser; usually the highest advertising rate; commonly used in broadcast advertising.

Flat rate: A print advertising rate that is not subject to discount.

Flight (flight saturation): Concentrating advertising within a short time period; an advertising campaign that runs for a specified number of weeks, followed by a period of inactivity (see Hiatus), after which the campaign may resume with another flight.

Fold: The bottom most visible area of a web page as displayed on a standard screen size (currently defined as 800×600 pixels). Many ad networks require their ads to be displayed “above the fold” (see related definition).

Floating time: See Run of schedule.

Forced combination: A policy to require newspaper advertisers to buy advertising space in both morning and evening newspapers owned by the same interests within a market.

Forcing distribution: Using advertising to increase consumer demand, thereby inducing dealers to stock a product; seldom used not.

Fractional page: Print advertising space of less than a full page.

Fractional showing: An outdoor advertising showing of less than 25 (see Showing).

Free circulation: A publication sent without charge; often with controlled circulation.

Frequency: The number of times that an average audience member sees or hears an advertisement; the number of times that an individual or household is exposed to an advertisement or campaign (frequency of exposure); the number of times that an advertisement is run (frequency of insertion).

Frequency discount: A reduced advertising rate that is offered by media to advertisers who run a certain number of advertisements within a given time.

Fringe time: Broadcast time periods preceding or following prime time; television time between daytime and prime time is called “early fringe” and television time immediately following prime time is called “late fringe”.

Full run: One transit advertising car card in every transit bus or car.

Full showing: The number of outdoor posters that are needed to reach all of the mobile population in a market at least once within a 30-day period (see Gross rating points); also called a 100 showing (see Showing).

Facing: A billboard location with the panels facing the same direction and visible to the same lines of traffic.

Fixed rate: An advertising rate for advertising time that cannot be taken away or “preempted” by another advertiser; usually the highest advertising rate; commonly used in broadcast advertising.

Flat rate: A print advertising rate that is not subject to discount.

Flight (flight saturation): Concentrating advertising within a short time period; an advertising campaign that runs for a specified number of weeks, followed by a period of inactivity (see Hiatus), after which the campaign may resume with another flight.

Fold: The bottom most visible area of a web page as displayed on a standard screen size (currently defined as 800×600 pixels). Many ad networks require their ads to be displayed “above the fold” (see related definition).

Floating time: See Run of schedule.

Forced combination: A policy to require newspaper advertisers to buy advertising space in both morning and evening newspapers owned by the same interests within a market.

Forcing distribution: Using advertising to increase consumer demand, thereby inducing dealers to stock a product; seldom used not.

Fractional page: Print advertising space of less than a full page.

Fractional showing: An outdoor advertising showing of less than 25 (see Showing).

Free circulation: A publication sent without charge; often with con- trolled circulation.

Frequency: The number of times that an average audience member sees or hears an advertisement; the number of times that an individual or household is exposed to an advertisement or campaign (frequency of exposure); the number of times that an advertisement is run (frequency of insertion).

Frequency discount: A reduced advertising rate that is offered by media to advertisers who run a certain number of advertisements within a given time.

Fringe time: Broadcast time periods preceding or following prime time; television time between daytime and prime time is called “early fringe” and television time immediately following prime time is called “late fringe”.

Full run: One transit advertising car card in every transit bus or car.

Full showing: The number of outdoor posters that are needed to reach all of the mobile population in a market at least once within a 30-day period (see Gross rating points); also called a 100 showing (see Showing).

General magazine: A consumer magazine that is not aimed at a special interest audience.

Giveaway: A free offer; a broadcast program that offers free gifts as prized.

Grid card: Spot broadcast advertising rates that are set in a matrix format to allow a station to set rates based on current audience ratings and advertiser buying demand.

Gross audience: The total number of households or people who are “delivered” or reached by an advertising schedule, without regard to any possible duplication that may occur; also called “total audience”.

Gross billing: The cost of advertising at the highest advertising rate; the total value of an advertising agency’s space and time dealings (see Billing).

Gross impressions: The total number of persons or the total numberof audience impressions delivered by an advertising schedule (see Gross audience.

Gross rate: The highest possible rate for advertising time or space.

Gross rating points (GRPs): The total number of broadcast rating points delivered by an advertiser’s television schedule, usually in a one-week period; an indicator of the combined audience percentage reach and exposure frequency achieved by an advertising schedule; in outdoor, a standard audience level upon which some markets’ advertising rates are based.

Gutter: The inside page margins where a publication is bound.

Half run: Transit advertising car cards in half the buses or transit cars of a system.

Half showing: A 50 outdoor showing (see Showing).

Head of household: The person within a family or household who is responsible for the major purchase decisions; sometimes, a male head and female head of household are considered separately.

Hiatus: A period during a campaign when an advertiser’s schedule is suspended for a time, after which it resumes.

Hitchhiker: A broadcast advertising announcement at the end of a program that promotes another product from the same advertiser.

Holdover audience: Those persons tuned to a program who stay tuned to that station or network for the following program.

Horizontal cume: The total number of different people who were tuned to a broadcast station or network at the same time on different days of the week.

Horizontal publication: A business or trade publication that is of interest at one level or to one job function in a variety of businesses or fields.

House agency: An advertising agency that is owned or controlled by an advertiser.

House organ: A company’s own publication.

IAB: Internet Advertising Bureau: The IAB, or Internet Advertising Bureau, is an association dedicated to helping online, interactive broadcasting, email, wireless and interactive television media companies increase their revenues.

Identification (ID): A spot television commercial eight to ten seconds in length, during a station break; the last two seconds of the visual time may be reserved for showing the station call letters (“station identification”); a ten second broadcast commercial announcement, sometimes referred to as a “ten”.

Impact: The degree to which an advertisement or campaign affects its audience; the amount of space (full-page, half-page, etc:) or of time (60-second, 30-second, etc.) that is purchased, as opposed to reach and frequency measures; also, the use of color, large type, powerful messages, or other devices that may induce audience reaction (see Unit).

Independent station: A broadcast station that is not affiliated with a network.

Index: A numerical value that is assigned to quantitative data for ease of comparison.

Individual location: An outdoor location that has room only for one billboard.

Insert: An advertisement that is enclosed with bills or letters; a one-page or multi-page print advertisement that is distributed with the publication and may or may not be bound into it.

Insertion order: A statement from an advertising agency to a media vehicle that accompanies the advertisement copy and indicates specifications for the advertisement.

Integrated commercial: A broadcast advertising message that is delivered as part of the entertainment portion of a program.

Interstitial Ad: Interstitial advertisements are usually full-page ads displayed while a user is in transit from one page to another, triggered by code included in the link. CPM rates can be as high or higher than popup and popunder rates, and interstitials, due to their similarity to traditional television advertising (i.e., their resemblance to a commercial which is juxtaposed between two television shows), are often viewed as far less intrusive. The Fastclick network (see related review) has recently begun selling interstitial ads, with considerable success.

Island position: A print advertisement that is surrounded by editorial material; a print advertisement that is not adjacent to any other advertising; a broadcast commercial that is scheduled away from any other commercial, with program content before and after; often at premium advertising rates.

Isolated 30: A 30-second broadcast commercial that runs by itself and not in combination with any other announcement; usually found only on network television.

Key: A code in an advertisement to facilitate tracing which advertisement produced an inquiry or order.

Landing Page: A landing page is the advertiser’s web page to which a user is directed after clicking an ad. For affiliate, CPL and CPA sales, it is important that the landing page is one which entices users to immediately purchase a product or service, rather than simply the home page of the advertising site.

Lead: A lead indicates a potential customer who has expressed interest in a product or service, generally by means of requesting additional information or following through on an online registration. Some affiliate programs pay on a CPL, or Cost Per Lead, basis.

Life: The length of time during which an advertisement is used; the length of time during which an advertisement is judged still to be effective; the length of time that a publication is retained by its audience.

Life-style profiles: Classifying media audiences on the basis of career, recreation, and/or leisure patterns or motives.

Linage: In print, the number of agate lines to be used for an advertisement or for a series of advertisements.

List broker: An agent who prepares and rents the use of mailing lists.

Local rate: An advertising rate offered by media to local advertisers that is lower than the rate offered to national advertisers.

Log: A broadcast station’s record of its programming.

Magazine concept: Buying a certain number of broadcast announcements from a station with a certain guaranteed audience level, without selecting the specific times or programs.

Mail-order advertising: Advertisements intended to induce direct or  dering of merchandise through the mail; the advertisements themselves are not necessarily distributed through the mail and may appear in other advertising media.

Make-good: A repeat of an advertisement to compensate for an error, omission, or technical difficulty with the publication, broadcast, or transmission of the original.

Market: See Target market and Target group.

Market potential: The reasonable maximum market share or sales level that a product or service can be expected to achieve.

Market profile: A geographic description of the location of prospects for a product or service sometimes used instead of “target profile”; see Target Market and Target profile.

Market share: A company’s or brand’s portion of the sales of a product or service category.

Mat service: A service to newspapers that supplies pictures and drawings for use in advertisements; entire prepared advertisements may be offered (“mat” is slang for “matrix”).

Maximail rate: The cost of an agate line of advertising space at the highest milline rate; somewhat obsolete as the usage of agate lines has declined.

Media buyer: The person who is responsible for purchasing advertising space or time; often skilled in negotiation with the media.

Media planner: The person who is responsible for determining the proper use of advertising media to fulfill the marketing and promotional objectives for a specific product or advertiser.

Merchandising: The promotion of an advertiser’s products, services, and the like to the sales force, wholesalers, and dealers, promotion other than advertising to consumers through the use of in-store displays, guarantees, services, point of purchase materials, and so forth; display and promotion of retail goods; display of a mass media advertisement close to the point of sale.

Message distribution: Measurement of media audience by the successive frequency of exposure, for example, saw once, saw twice, and so on.

Metropolitan area: A geographic area consisting of a central city of 50,000 population or more, plus the economically and socially integrated surrounding area, as established by the federal government; usually limited by county boundaries (slang “metro area”).

Metro rating: The broadcast rating figure from within a metropolitan area.

Milline rate: A comparison of the advertising line rates of newspapers with uneven circulations by calculating the line rate per million circulation; determined by multiplying the line rate by 1,000,000 and dividing by the circulation; now somewhat obsolete because of the declining use of agate-line measurements and advertising line rates.

Minimil rate: The cost of an agate line of advertising at the lowest possible milline rate; somewhat obsolete as the usage of agate lines has declined.

Mood programming: Maintaining a single approach or characteristic in broadcast programming.

Net: Money paid to a media vehicle by an advertising agency after deducting the agency’s commission (also, slang for “network”).

Net unduplicated audience: The number of different people who are reached by a single issue of two or more publications.

Network: In broadcast, a grouping of stations; an organization that supplies programming to a group or chain of stations.

Network cooperative program: A network program with provisions for inserting local commercials.

Network option time: Broadcast time on a station for which the network has the option of selling advertising.

Newspaper syndicate: A firm that sells special material such as features, photographs, comic strips, and cartoons, for publication in newspapers.

Next to reading matter: A print advertising position adjacent to news or editorial material; may be at premium rates.

No change in rate (NCR or NCIR): Used when some other format or specification change has occurred.

O & O station: A broadcast station that is “owned and operated” by a network.

One time only (OTO): A commercial announcement that runs only once.

One-time rate: See Open rate.

Open-end transcription: A transcribed broadcast with time for the insertion of local commercial announcements.

Open rate: The highest advertising rate before discount can be earned; also called “basic rate” and “one-time rate”.

Overrun: Additional copies of an advertisement beyond the number actually ordered or needed; extra copies to replace damaged out door posters or transit car cards.

Package: A series of broadcast programs that an advertiser may sponsor.

Package plan discount: A spot television discount plan for buying a certain number of spots, usually within a one-week period.

Packager: An individual or company that produces packaged program series; also called “syndicator”.

Paid circulation: The number of print copies that are purchased by audience members.

Panel: A single outdoor billboard.

Partial showing: An outdoor showing of less than 25.

Participation: A commercial announcement within a broadcast program, as compared with one scheduled between programs; also called “participating announcement”.

Participation program: A broadcast program with each segment sponsored by a different advertiser.

Pass-along readers: Readers of a publication who acquire a copy other than by purchase or subscription (see Secondary audience.

Pay cable: Cable television programming for which the audience must pay or subscribe.

Penetration: The percentage of households that have a broadcast receiving set; a measure of the degree of advertising effectiveness; the percentage of households that have been exposed to an advertising campaign.

People meter: Slang for a broadcast ratings measurement device that records individual audience members who are present during a program.

Per issue rate: A special magazine advertising rate that is determined by the number of issues that are used during the contract period; similar to a frequency discount, except not based on the number of advertisements, but rather on the number of issues in which an advertising campaign appears.

Piggyback: Slang for two of a sponsor’s commercial announcements that are presented back-to-back within a single commercial time segment; for example, two 30 second commercials in a 60-second time slot; also called “double spotting”.

Pilot: A sample production of a proposed broadcast program series.

Plans board: An advertising agency committee that reviews campaign plans for clients.

Plug: A free mention of a product or service.

Point-of-purchase advertising (POP): Promotions in retail stores, usually displays.

Position: The location of an advertisement on a page; the time when a program or commercial announcement will run in a broadcast; special positions may cost premium prices.

Potential audience: The maximum possible audience.

Preemptible rate: An advertising rate that is subject to cancellation by another advertiser’s paying a higher rate, usually in broadcast; the protection period varies by station:, and ranges from no notice to two-weeks notice or more (see Fixed rate.

Preemption: Cancellation of a broadcast program for special material or news; the right of a station or network to cancel a regular program to run a special program; a commercial announcement that may be replaced if another advertiser pays a higher or “fixed” rate.

Premium: An item that is offered to help promote a product or service; a higher cost advertising rate (see Premium price.

Premium price: A special advertising rate, usually higher, for special positions or other considerations.

Preprint: Advertising material that is printed in advance of the reg- ular press run, perhaps on another printing press with greater capa- bility for color, and so forth.

Primary audience: Individuals in the print media audience who pur- chase or subscribe to the publication (see Secondary audience).

Primary household: A household in which a publication has been sub- scribed to or purchased.

Primary listening area: The geographic area in which a broadcast transmission is static-free and easily received.

Primary readers: Those persons who purchase or subscribe to a publication; readers in primary households.

Prime time: The hours when viewing is at its peak on television; usually the evening hours.

Product allocation: The various products that are assigned to specific times or locations in an advertiser’s schedule, when more than one brand is advertised; the amount of the advertising budget that is allocated to individual products.

Product protection: A time separation between the airing of broadcast commercial announcements for competitive goods or services.

Profile: A term used interchangeably with “audience composition” to describe the demographic characteristics of audiences.

Program compatibility: Broadcast programming or editorial content that is suitable for the product or service that is being promoted; suitability of the advertisement or campaign theme with program content.

Progressive proofs: A test press run of each color in the printing process.

Projected audience: The number of audience members calculated from a sample survey of audience size; the number of broadcast viewers, either in total or per receiving set, based on the sample for the rating percentages.

Publisher’s statement: The certified circulation of a publication, attested by the publisher and subject to audit.

Pulp magazine: A publication, usually printed low-quality paper, with sensational editorial material; for example, a mystery, detective, or “TV/movie” magazine.

Qualified circulation: The distribution of a publication that is restricted to individuals who meet certain requirements; for example, member physicians are qualified to receive the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Qualified reader: A person who can prove readership of a publication.

Quantity discount: A lower advertising rate for buying a certain amount of space or time.

Quarter-run: One fourth of the car cards that are required for a full run in transit; a card in every fourth transit system vehicle.

Quintile: One fifth of a group; usage in advertising often refers to audience members who have been divided into five equal groups (quintiles), ranging from the heaviest to the lightest media usage levels.

Rate: A charge for advertising media space or time.

Rate book: A printed book that is designed to provide advertising rates for several media vehicles; for example, Standard Rate and Data Service.

Rate card: A printed listing of advertising rates for a single media vehicle.

Rate differential: The difference between the local and the national advertising rates in a vehicle.

Rate guarantee: Media commitment that an advertising rate will not be increased during a certain calendar period.

Rate holder: A small print advertisement used by an advertiser to meet contract requirements for earning a discounted advertising rate.

Rate protection: The length of time that an advertiser is guaranteed a certain advertising rate without an increase.

Rating: The percentage of the potential broadcast audience that is tuned to a particular station, network, or program: the audience of a vehicle expressed as a percentage of the total population of an area.

Rating point: A rating of one percent: one percent of the potential audience; the sum of the ratings of multiple advertising insertions; for example, two advertisements with a rating of 10 percent each will total 20 rating points.

Reach: The total audience that a medium actually reaches; the size of the audience with which a vehicle communicates; the total number of people in an advertising media audience; the total percentage of the target group that is actually covered by an advertising campaign.

Reader interest: An expression of interest through inquiries, coupons, and so forth; the level of interest in various products.

Readership: The percent or number of persons who read a publication or advertisement.

Reading notice: A print advertisement that is intended to resemble editorial matter.

Rebate: A payment that is returned by the media vehicle to an advertiser who has overpaid, usually because of earning a lower rate than that originally contracted.

Reminder advertising: An advertisement, usually brief, that is in tended to keep the name of a product or service before the public; often, a supplement to other advertising.

Rep: A media representative (slang for a national sales representative.

Replacement: A substitute for a broadcast commercial announcement that did not clear the original order, that is, that was not broadcast as specified on the advertiser’s order.

Retail trading zone (RTZ): The geographic area in which most of a market’s population makes the majority of their retail purchases.

Rich Media: Rich media advertisements are banners (or popups, skyscrapers, interstitials, etc.) which are constructed using dynamic tools such as Flash, html forms, Java, ASP, Shockwave, Javascript, or other languages or applications that increase the appearance and/or functionality of the ad beyond that which can be achieved with a static or animated image. For example, a rich media ad may include sound, a user registration form, a multiple page Flash application, or other more sophisticated media. Rich media ads usually command higher CPM levels than simple image redirects.

Roadblock or roadblocking: Slang term for placing television announcements at the same time on two or more networks, or at the same time on several stations in a single market; used as a remedy to channel switching during a commercial break.

ROI: ROI, or return on investment, is a calculation used to determine the relative efficacy of an ad campaign in financial terms, in particular whether or not an ad campaign has generated more or less new revenue than it cost. Due to the direct response nature of many internet ad campaigns, it may be possible to determine ROI with much greater precision than, for example, a television commercial. The response to broader, branding-style campaigns may be more imprecise.

RON: A RON, or run of network, buy means that an advertiser purchases banner inventory across an ad network’s entire range of sites. This type of buy is often used for large-scale branding or awareness campaigns, and usually commands a significantly lower CPM rate than buys which are targeted demographically or by category or site.

ROP color: Color printing that is done during the regular press run.

Run of paper (ROP): Advertising that is positioned anywhere in a publication, with no choice of a specific place for the advertisement to appear.

Run of schedule (ROS): Broadcast commercial announcements that can be scheduled at the station’s discretion anytime; in some cases, the advertiser can specify or request certain time periods; for example, ROS 10:00 am – 4:00 pm Monday – Friday.

Satellite station: A broadcast station in a fringe reception area, to boost the effective range of the main station’s signal.

Saturation: An advertising media schedule of wide reach and high frequency, concentrated during a time period to achieve maximum coverage and impact (see Flight).

Scatter plan: Commercial announcements that are scheduled during a variety of times in broadcast media; usually, the advertiser is permitted to specify general time periods during which the commercials will be scheduled; also called “scatter package”.

Schedule: A list of advertisements or media to be used in a campaign; a chart of the advertisements that have been planned.

Schedule and estimate: A data form submitted by an advertising agency to the advertiser prior to a firm media purchase; it contains price and audience goals and a proposed schedule.

Secondary audience: The members of a print media audience who do not subscribe to or purchase the publication (see Pass-along readers).

Secondary listening area: The outlying area in which broadcast transmissions are subject to fading or static; in television, the Grade 3 signal contour.

Self-liquidating point-of-purchase: Display for which the retailer pays part or all of the costs.

Self-liquidating premium: An item for which the cost is paid by the customer; the price that the consumer pays covers the manufacturing cost of the premium.

Self-mailer: A direct-mail item that is mailed without an envelope.

Sets in use: The percentage of households that have broadcast receiving sets that are operating at one time within a market area; because many households have more than one receiving set, “households using television” and “households using radio” are the current common terms.

Share of audience: The percentage of sets-in-use (and thus of HUT or of HUR) that are tuned to a particular station, network, or program (slang “share”).

Share of voice (SOV): The proportion of advertising expenditures that are made for a brand versus competitive brands.

Shopping newspaper: A newspaper-like publication that is devoted mainly to advertising, often distributed free to shoppers or to households (slang “shopper”).

Short rate: Money that is owed to a media vehicle by an advertiser to offset the rate differential between the earned rate and the lower contracted rate.

Showing: The number of outdoor posters that are necessary to reach a certain percentage of the mobile population in a market within a specified time; many outdoor markets are now purchased by gross rating points (see Full showing and Gross rating points).

Sixty: Slang for a one-minute broadcast commercial announcement.

Skyscraper: A common banner ad format. Skyscraper ads are most commonly 120×600 pixels, although a relatively new variation on the theme, the wide skyscraper, is gaining ground. These are 160×600. Ad networks offering skyscrapers include Burst Media, which sells 160 and 120 pixel skyscrapers, and Tribal Fusion and Fastclick, which offer the standard 120 pixel size (although Tribal Fusion has a fairly limited skyscraper inventory).

Soap opera: Slang for a continuing broadcast dramatic serial, usually a daytime program.

Space buyer: The person who is responsible for purchasing advertising in newspapers, magazine, and business publications, and sometimes outdoor and transit (see Media buyer).

Space position value: A measure of the effectiveness of an outdoor poster location.

Spectacular: A large outdoor lighted sign.

Split run: Testing two or more print advertisements by running each only to a portion of the audience, usually in a single issue.

Sponsor: An advertiser who buys the exclusive right to the time available for commercial announcements in a given broadcast program or segment.

Sponsorships: Sponsorships, as opposed to traditional ad display, generally occur when an advertiser pays to advertise on all or most of a specific section of a website or email newsletter. Advertisers usually prefer the sponsorship model when a website offers content related to, but not competitive with, the products or services offered by the sponsoring company. A sponsorship may take the form of traditional advertising banners, integrated sponsored content, text messages (“this section sponsored by…”) or the like.

Spot: The purchase of broadcast slots by geographic or station breakdowns; the purchase of slots at certain times, usually during station breaks; the term “spot” can refer to the time used for the commercial announcement or it can refer to the announcement itself.

Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA): See Metropolitan area.

Station break: The time between broadcast programs to permit station identification and spot announcements; slang for a 20-secondbroad- cast announcement.

Station clearance: See Clear Time.

Station identification: The announcement of station call letters, usually with broadcast frequency or channel, and station location.

Station option time: A broadcast time for which the station has the option of selling advertising.

Station posters: Advertisements consisting of posters in transit stations.

Strip programming: A broadcast program or commercial that is scheduled at the same time of day on successive days of the week, either Monday through Friday or Monday through Sunday (see Across the Board).

Subject to non-renewal (SNR): Commercial time that is available for purchase if the current advertiser does not renew.

Sunday supplement: A newspaper section in magazine format; also called “magazine supplement” or “magazine section” or simply “supplement”.

Sustaining period: A period of time during an advertising campaign when advertisements are used to remind the audience of the product or service or of the campaign; often, a time of reduced advertising expenditures following the introductory flight.

Sweep: The period of the year when a ratings service measures the broadcast audience in the majority of the markets throughout the country; for example, surveys that are scheduled for November 2-24 would be referred to as the “November sweep”.

Syndicated program: Broadcast program that is sold to individual stations, rather than appearing on a network.

Syndicator: Television program distributor who works with reruns or new programs on a market-to-market basis (see Packager).

Tabloid: A newspaper of the approximate size of a standard newspaper folded in half (slang “tab”).

Tag: Dealer identification, usually added to the end of a broadcast commercial  announcement to indicate where the product or service being advertised can be purchased in the local market.

Targeting, Ad Targeting, Targeted, Targeted Ads: Targeting refers to the means by which advertisers attempt to reach a desired audience through choice of category (in an ad network), choice of web site, choice of demographic, geographic location, or whatever other criteria the advertiser finds interesting. Targeted ads command higher CPM rates than non-targeted ads, with the most finely targeted, site-specific, usually earning the highest rate.

Target group: Those persons to whom a campaign is directed; those individuals with similar characteristics who are prospects for a product or service; also called “consumer profile”.

Target market: The geographic area or areas to which a campaign is directed; the areas where a product is being sold or introduced; also called “market profile”.

Target profile: A demographic description of the target groups, often including the geographic target markets.

Tearsheet: A publication page with an advertiser’s message, sent to the advertiser for approval or for checking.

Teaser: An advertisement that precedes the major portion of an advertising campaign, intended to build curiosity.

Telemarketing: Selling by use of telephones, either initiating the calls or receiving orders.

Ten: Slang for a ten-second broadcast commercial announcement.

Thirty: Slang for a 30-second broadcast commercial announcement.

Throwaways: Free shopping newspapers.

Tie-in: See Cooperative advertising and Dealer tie-in.

Till forbidden (TF): A newspaper insertion order abbreviation; run the advertisement until told to stop.

Time buyer: The person who is responsible for purchasing advertising on radio and television (see Media buyer).

Time period rating (TP): The rating for a particular broadcast time period, regardless of the program that was broadcast during that slot.

Time sheet: A form used by a time buyer to keep track of the data on a media buy; also called a “buy sheet”: the form used to keep track of how advertising agency personnel use their time, for application in billing purposes.

To be announced (TBA): Used as a notification in broadcast program schedules.

Total audience: The number of all the different homes or individuals who are tuned to a broadcast program for six minutes or longer.

Trade paper: A specialized publication for a specific profession, trade, or industry; another term for some business publications.

Traffic: Just as it sounds, traffic refers to the rate at which a site is visited. The term is general, but the best true measures of traffic are calculated in terms of unique visitors and page views.

Traffic count: The number of persons who pass an outdoor panel location.

Trim size: The final magazine page size, after it is trimmed.

Turnover: The frequency with which the audience for a broadcast program changes over a period of time (see Audience turnover).

Twenty: Slang for a 20-second broadcast commercial announcement also called a “chain break” or “station break”.

Two-page spread: A single print advertisement that crosses two facing pages; also called “double spread” or “double truck” (see Center spread and double truck).

Unduplicated audience: The total number of different people who were exposed to an advertisement or campaign through multiple in- sertions in more than one media vehicle (see Cumulative audience).

Unit: Advertising unit; the form and context in which an advertisement appears in a media vehicle; for example, full-page, half-page vertical, center spread, black and white, back cover, two colors; thirty second commercial, ten-second ID, and so on.

Unique Users, Unique Visitors, Uniques, Unique Impressions: Unique users refers the the number of distinct individuals, as determined by IP address, user login, cookie, or some combination thereof, who visit a web site or view a banner ad. Most ad networks favor sites which generate a large number of unique impressions over sites whose users view large numbers of pages. A typical ad network will often not show more than five or six individual ads of any one type to a single user in a single browser session. Ad networks for larger sites, such as Tribal Fusion, require sites to be visited by at least 1,000 unique visitors per day. Networks such as Burst and Fastclick require around 3,000 unique visitors per month.

Upfront buying: Initial purchasing of network television advertising by firms wishing to have optimal selection of available programs; reserving advertising time on network television programs when the seasonal schedule is first announced; this tactic often requires longer schedules and higher prices.

Usage level: Classifying media audiences by the amount of the product or service they use.
Vertical cume: The total number of different people who were tuned to successive broadcast programs.

Vertical publication: A business or trade publication that is of interest to all levels or job functions within a single business or profession.

Vertical saturation: Many broadcast commercial announcements scheduled throughout the course of a single day, generally designed to reach many different people, in an attempt to reach a high percentage of the broadcast audience.

Visits: The number of distinct visits to a web site within a specified time period, such as one day or one month. Visits are an imprecise term and numbers may vary considerably depending on the type of calculation used, but many log and statistical applications define a visit as a single browser session by a single IP address. Multiple browser sessions by the same visitor will often be counted as a single visit if the time frame within which they occur is short. Because of the often arbitrary and imprecise methods used to determine visit counts, the term is of comparatively little statistical value. Page views and unique visitor counts, computed individually and in combination, are far more useful in determining the relative popularity of a web page or web site.

Wait order: An instruction or request to delay publication of a print advertisement; also, but seldom, used in broadcast.

Waste circulation: The readers of a publication who are not prospects for the product or service being advertised; advertisement distribution in an area in which the product or service is not distributed.

Yield: In the context of banner ads, yield indicates the percentage of clicks divided by impressions for an ad on a given page (see click-through rate).

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